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Archive for Class Work

Welcome Back to BMS and

Welcome to 8-2 Science!

 Glad you found this website

….we’ll be using this a lot as the school year gets underway!

There are many tools and links on the classroom website that will allow you to always stay in touch with what we are doing, where classroom handouts and notes will be, and dates of important events like projects and tests.  In fact, this school year you will also be creating your own websites for your own work!

Class Policies

Even though no one is perfect, we must all try to do our very best in whatever we do. To be your best in Mr. Ruggiero’s class, the two most important things to do are stay focused on your class work and to keep a cooperative attitude with your classmates and teachers at all times.

Click on the link below to take you to the Classroom Overview for the school year. Understanding how our classroom works will help you to always stay focused and keep a cooperative attitude.

Class Materials

  • Covered Textbook
  • Composition Book (Cow Book)
  • Pens or Pencils
  • 3-Hole Punch Folder or Binder for Handouts/Papers
  • Pencil Sharpener


Click to see printable version of

Overview of Grade 8 Science



under: Class Work

Below are videos to serve as an introduction to the Grade 8 Class trip to Washington, D.C.  We have a video on the National Air and Space Museum, the National Museum of Natural History, the US Capitol Dome’s 150th Anniversary, and The Three Branches of Government: How They Function.

under: Class Work

Below is a lesson on GLOBAL WINDS, presented by a friend who is also a science teacher, Mr. Sean Mussleman.

Here is one of the Venn Word Banks we are doing in class this week. use this as a study guide – know the meanings and explanations of all the terms!

  •  Describe the relationship between Heat, Pressure and Wind

  • How does this relationship affect the formation of winds?  You can describe either local winds or global winds.


Be complete in your descriptions and your naming of the winds.


The Sun heats and cools the land faster than water.  We call this  UNEQUAL HEATING.

This UNEQUAL HEATING causes  differences in pressure.

Differences in pressure cause winds to blow because AIR moves from HIGH PRESSURE to LOW PRESSURE.

Extra Credit – Develop an experiment to do this, and report on your findings. Use science facts and ideas to explain what you did.

Extra Credit - Develop an experiment to do this, and report on your findings.  Use science facts and ideas to explain what you did.


Fun Facts about Wind:  Click Here

We have been studying the effects of unequal heating of the Earth’s surface, and the resulting wind patterns these cause.  Land that is heated more directly absorbs more of the sun’s heat through radiation.  The ground touches the air, and through conduction, heats the air – the air becomes less dense which causes it to rise.  This creates an area of lower pressure in the atmosphere.  As the air rises, it cools, becomes more dense, and then falls back to the earth, creating an area of higher pressure.  The movement of the air creates a convection current.


Moving air is called WIND.

Global Winds

The spinning of the Earth causes the winds to bend to the right as they move across the globe.  We call this effect the Coriolis EffectGlobal Winds are winds that move across large areas around the globe. There are three major Global Wind Belts – the Trade Winds, the Westerlies and the Easterlies.  These wind belts are found in both the Northern and the Southern Hemispheres.  There are also areas of calm winds, called the doldrums near the equator, and the Horse Latitudes nearthe 30 degrees latitudes.  See the diagrams below.

Global Wind Belts

Global Winds Diagram

Local Winds

The same convection currents that cause the Global Winds also affect the atmosphere at the local level, especially at the seacoast.  Here on Cape Cod we experience these local winds during the summer.  Cape Cod is kept cool, sort of a natural air-conditioning, by the local sea and land breezes.  The hot summer sun heats the land on Cape, causing the air to rise (low pressure). Cooler descending air from the water (higher pressure) rushes in to take the place of the rising warm air on land, forming a cooling Sea Breeze.  This keeps the Cape comfortable on most summer days.  At night, the land cools down much faster, the warmer ocean water heats the air, causing the air over the water to rise. Cooler air from the land moves in to take the place of the rising are, creating a Land Breeze.

Study the diagram below, and then CLICK on it to see the animation!.

SmartBoard Land and Sea Breezes

Both Global Winds and Local Winds are caused by the unequal heating of the Earth’s surface, creating differences in air temperatures and air pressures.

Air (wind) always moves from HIGH pressure to LOW pressure.

 This Wind’s About to Blow!

under: Class Work

…and another music video “Drops of Atmosphere”

We are studying the Layers of the Atmosphere as we start our new unit.  In our graphing lab activity we learned that the temperature of the air definitely changes as we go higher in altitude…but it does not always go down, as you may think!  Each of the layers of the atmosphere is defined by a Change in the Temperature Direction.  The chart below shows the changes as we graphed them in class.

Layers of the Atmosphere

  Remember your Silly Sentence to recall the layers in order:



The Sun Melts The Ice Everyday!

The Aurora Borealis, also know as the Northern Lights, are caused by the sun’s high energy radiation ‘charging’ the air molecules in the Ionosphere, causing them to glow.  This happens near the North and South Poles, as the Electromagnetic Field is less strong at these points.


The Northern Lights are one of nature’s most spectacular visual sights, and in this speeded-up video from National Geographic Videos, they provide a breathtaking display of light, shape, and color over the course of a single night in Norway.

And finally, for some fun, here is the link to the Classroom JigSaw Puzzle we did today…

Atmospheric Layers Jigsaw Puzzle



under: Class Work

SPECIAL Video Links to Bill Nye the Science Guy

Bill Nye The Science Guy:  On The Atmosphere

Bill Nye The Science Guy: On Heat

We have been studying the ways that heat can be moved form one substance to another…through the three types of Heat Transfer - Radiation, Convection and Conduction.  For an animation review of what we did in class,  click on the picture.

Heat Transfer Animations

In the diagram below you can see how each of these types of heat transfer is represented in the picture of the boiling water.  Radiation from the campfire travels through open space to heat the pot.  The pot then conducts the heat through direct contact (touch) to heat the entire pot and handle, as well as the water inside the pot. As the water, a fluid, gains heat energy, the molecules of water become more agitated and move more quickly, becoming less dense.  The warmer water then rises to the top of the pot, where it hits the air, cools, and then contracts to become more dense.  It then sinks to the bottom of the pan, where it is heated once again.  This forms a convection current in the pan.


In the atmosphere, the same three types of Heat Transfer take place…Radiation from the sun heats the ground.  The ground then touches the air, and through this direct contact, conduction, the air is then heated.  As the warm air becomes less dense and molecules move farther apart, the warm air rises through convection. When it reaches the upper levels, the warmer air cools, contracts, becomes denser, and then sinks back to earth.  It then gets heated by the ground one more time, and the repeated actions form convection currents.


Watch this  music video below…recommended by a classmate!


Like Jigsaws?  Check this out….click on pic below!

preview35 pieceHeat Transfer in the Atmosphere

under: Class Work

Earths Atmosphere



In the darkest regions of deep space, the temperature is a chilly -450° Fahrenheit. Closer to our Sun, temperatures reach thousands of degrees Fahrenheit. What makes Earth’s climate so moderate? Separating Earth from the extreme and inhospitable climate of space is a 500-mile-thick cocoon of gases called the atmosphere.

All planets have an atmosphere, a layer of gases that surrounds them. The Sun’s atmosphere is made up of hydrogen, while Earth’s is made up primarily of nitrogen and oxygen. Carbon dioxide, ozone, and other gases are also present. These gases keep our planet warm and protect us from the direct effects of the Sun’s radiation. Without this regulation, Earth could not sustain life.

Today we will start to learn WHY the earth’s atmosphere is so important to life.  We will also discuss the major gases in the atmosphere and learn why each of them is so important.

From here we will then do an online activity called AstroVenture!


And when you have finished the AstroVenture Assignment,

enjoy this music video!

under: Class Work

The past few days have seen us focusing on the characteristics of the Inner Rocky Planets and the Outer Gas Giant Planets.  We saw that all the planets have certain characteristics, but that the two main groups differ in several key factors.  The Venn Diagram compares and contrasts these two classes of planets.

The Inner and Outer Planets

Using this comparison, you will have the basics to start the Planet Creation project.  The project outline can be found under the Project Resources links to the right.  You will also find a copy of the TrackStar Packet and the link to the TrackStar website.

InterStellar Exo-Planet Creation Project

You are a brilliant scientist and engineer that works for the IAU (International Astronomical Union – the same people that declared that Pluto was no longer a planet). You have developed an incredible machine that can actually create a planet!  You have been commissioned by the IAU to design two new planets, one Inner Terrestrial Planet, and one Outer Gaseous Planet.

Project is due Tuesday April 8

Sample of a Student Project using Minecraft, by Tim Lowney



under: Class Work

Planets of the Solar System

Check out this link to compare the planets


We have begun our study of the planets in our Solar System.  Earth is one of the eight planets in our solar system as defined by the International Astronomical Union.  In your studies you will learn the current definition of the word planet, and why Pluto is no longer considered a planet, but now rather, a dwarf planet.  Below is a basic outline of what we are studying.  For this unit we will be focusing on the TrackStar web-based activities and the Planet Creation Project.  Links to these sites are under PROJECT RESOURCES on the right aside of this web page.

Outline for The Solar System

  • Planets orbit the Sun at different distances.

Planets have different sizes and distances.

Distances – How far from the sun, and its effects on temperatures

Orbits – periods of revolution

  • The solar system formed from a swirling cloud of gas and dust.


  • The inner solar system has rocky planets.

The terrestrial planets have rocky crusts.

1. Processes and Surface Features

2. Atmospheres

Craters cover the surface of Mercury.

Volcanoes shape the surface of Venus.

Erosion changes the appearance of Mars.

1. Surface of Mars

2. Gases and Water on Mars

  • The outer solar system has four giant planets.

The gas giants have very deep atmospheres.

Jupiter is a world of storms and clouds.

Saturn has large rings.

Uranus and Neptune are extremely cold.

Birth of the Solar System

 (A National Geographic Video)


If Earth had Rings

under: Class Work


Check out this link for amazing photos!


>Check out this short video on the structure of the sun and its energy source!





There Goes the Sun!

A shining and ‘well functioning’ Sun is critical for our survival on Earth. The Sun was formed almost five billion years ago. At that time, a gas and dust cloud , called a NEBULA, became so condensed due to its own gravity that hydrogen atoms began to merge with each other to form helium and also release huge amounts of energy in a process known as nuclear fusion.

Fortunately, the Sun’s supply of hydrogen is so great that it will continue to shine for another five billion years. However, the intensity of the solar radiation will increase in the future and this will be fatal for life on Earth. As early as two to three billion years from now, the oceans will evaporate and it will become impossible to live on Earth.

On approximately its ten-billionth birthday – that is, in around five billion years from now – the hydrogen supply in the core of the Sun will be exhausted and the generation of energy will shift to the outer layers. As a result of this change, the Sun will expand and become a red-colored giant star that engulfs the planets closest to it – Mercury and Venus.

As a ‘ Red Giant” our Sun will lose a considerable amount of mass – by expanding sharply, the gravitational force at its surface will decrease and, unlike now, a lot of solar matter will pour into space. As its mass reduces, the planets will not be attracted to the Sun as strongly as at present and their orbits around the Sun will shift further outwards. The Earth will gradually move to where the planet Mars orbits today.


From Red Giant to White Dwarf

This does not by any means spell the end of the Sun’s dance of death. Helium will become concentrated in the center of the giant red Sun and will begin to ‘melt’ – forming heavier elements by means of nuclear fusion. This will cause the Sun to contract again as it slightly collapses inward. Near the end of the red giant stage, the helium-fusion zone will also shift to the outer layers of the Sun and the Sun will inflate again.

At this point, the fusion of helium will cease, leaving the Sun without a source of energy. Once the outward force caused by radiation pressure is absent, the solar mass will collapse inward. During this collapse, the Sun’s surface will heat up again – so much so that it will emit a significant amount of ultraviolet radiation. This will heat the matter that was previously ejected into space and cause it to glow – a ‘planetary nebula’ will be formed.

At the nebula’s center, the Sun will remain as a glowing ‘white dwarf‘ star. The White Dwarf will be about the size of Earth, but its matter will be so densely packed together that a piece the size of a sugar cube will weigh a ton. Over the course of several more billions of years, the White Dwarf will slowly cool down – becoming a ‘black dwarf‘ – and then our Sun will finally have disappeared.

source: http://www.takefreetime.com/2009/07/how-long-will-sun-continue-to-shine.html

How Long Will The Sun Continue To Shine

under: Class Work

Daylight Hours Explorer
Tonight’s assignment is to explore the following flash application available at this link here. Our goal is to analyze the graph and how the hours of daylight change over the course of year at various latitudes on Earth.

Answer the following questions on separate paper or the answer sheet in your
Chapter 2 Notes packet (page 8 or 10) .

This is to be used as background
for your WORM activity.

WORM LOGO1) Examine the daylight hours over the course of the year for the town of Bourne. Use your internet skills to to determine the latitude of Bourne and then adjust the bar to that degree latitude.

  • When is the longest day of the year?
  • The shortest?
  • What days does Bourne receive 12 hours of daylight?
  • What is the most amount of sunlight Bourne receives?
  • The least?

2) Work with the animation, think about what you are doing, and then answer the questions.

  • At what degree latitude do people begin to experience 24 hours of daylight or night time?
  • Why does this occur on our planet?
  • What happens to the amount of daylight at the North Pole and South Pole (90 degrees North and South)?  Describe why this occurs.

Adjust the latitude to at least two other latitudes.

Make sure one is in the southern hemisphere.

  • After analyzing the graphs, write a conclusion stating how the hours of daylight change as someone travels North or South of the EquatorWhat is the relationship between the following vocabulary terms and concepts?.

Be sure you use the following vocabulary words in your conclusions:







Alternate Activity:

Do two activities:

The Earth and Beyond: Day and Night

Sunrise and Sunset and Day Length


              When you complete the activities and get 4 of 4 questions correct,

print the pages that shows you did it and put your name on it!

Children's university Webpage

under: Class Work

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