….we’ll be using this a lot as the school year gets underway!
There are many tools and links on the classroom website that will allow you to always stay in touch with what we are doing, where classroom handouts and notes will be, and dates of important events like projects and tests. In fact, this school year you will also be creating your own websites for your own work!
Even though no one is perfect, we must all try to do our very best in whatever we do. To be your best in Mr. Ruggiero’s class, the two most important things to do are stay focused on your class work and to keep a cooperative attitude with your classmates and teachers at all times.
Click on the link below to take you to the Classroom Overview for the school year. Understanding how our classroom works will help you to always stay focused and keep a cooperative attitude.
Below are videos to serve as an introduction to the Grade 8 Class trip to Washington, D.C. We have a video on the National Air and Space Museum, the National Museum of Natural History, the US Capitol Dome’s 150th Anniversary, and The Three Branches of Government: How They Function.
We have been studying the effects of unequal heating of the Earth’s surface, and the resulting wind patterns these cause. Land that is heated more directly absorbs more of the sun’s heat through radiation. The ground touches the air, and through conduction, heats the air – the air becomes less dense which causes it to rise. This creates an area of lower pressure in the atmosphere. As the air rises, it cools, becomes more dense, and then falls back to the earth, creating an area of higher pressure. The movement of the air creates a convection current.
AIR ALWAYS MOVESFROMAREAS OF HIGH PRESSURE TO AREAS OF LOW PRESSURE.
Moving air is called WIND.
The spinning of the Earth causes the winds to bend to the right as they move across the globe. We call this effect the Coriolis Effect. Global Winds are winds that move across large areas around the globe. There are three major Global Wind Belts – the Trade Winds, the Westerlies and the Easterlies. These wind belts are found in both the Northern and the Southern Hemispheres. There are also areas of calm winds, called the doldrums near the equator, and the Horse Latitudes nearthe 30 degrees latitudes. See the diagrams below.
The same convection currents that cause the Global Winds also affect the atmosphere at the local level, especially at the seacoast. Here on Cape Cod we experience these local winds during the summer. Cape Cod is kept cool, sort of a natural air-conditioning, by the local sea and land breezes. The hot summer sun heats the land on Cape, causing the air to rise (low pressure). Cooler descending air from the water (higher pressure) rushes in to take the place of the rising warm air on land, forming a cooling Sea Breeze. This keeps the Cape comfortable on most summer days. At night, the land cools down much faster, the warmer ocean water heats the air, causing the air over the water to rise. Cooler air from the land moves in to take the place of the rising are, creating a Land Breeze.
Study the diagram below, and then CLICK on it to see the animation!.
Both Global Winds and Local Winds are caused by the unequal heating of the Earth’s surface, creating differences in air temperatures and air pressures.
Air (wind) always moves from HIGH pressure to LOW pressure.
We are studying the Layers of the Atmosphere as we start our new unit. In our graphing lab activity we learned that the temperature of the air definitely changes as we go higher in altitude…but it does not always go down, as you may think! Each of the layers of the atmosphere is defined by a Change in the Temperature Direction. The chart below shows the changes as we graphed them in class.
Remember your Silly Sentence to recall the layers in order:
T S M T I E
The Sun Melts The Ice Everyday!
The Aurora Borealis, also know as the Northern Lights, are caused by the sun’s high energy radiation ‘charging’ the air molecules in the Ionosphere, causing them to glow. This happens near the North and South Poles, as the Electromagnetic Field is less strong at these points.
The Northern Lights are one of nature’s most spectacular visual sights, and in this speeded-up video from National Geographic Videos, they provide a breathtaking display of light, shape, and color over the course of a single night in Norway.
And finally, for some fun, here is the link to the Classroom JigSaw Puzzle we did today…
We have been studying the ways that heat can be moved form one substance to another…through the three types of Heat Transfer - Radiation, Convection and Conduction. For an animation review of what we did in class, click on the picture.
In the diagram below you can see how each of these types of heat transfer is represented in the picture of the boiling water. Radiationfrom the campfire travels through open space to heat the pot. The pot then conductsthe heat through direct contact (touch) to heat the entire pot and handle, as well as the water inside the pot. As the water, a fluid, gains heat energy, the molecules of water become more agitated and move more quickly, becoming less dense. The warmer water then rises to the top of the pot, where it hits the air, cools, and then contracts to become more dense. It then sinks to the bottom of the pan, where it is heated once again. This forms a convection current in the pan.
In the atmosphere, the same three types of Heat Transfer take place…Radiationfrom the sun heats the ground. The ground then touches the air, and through this direct contact, conduction, the air is then heated. As the warm air becomes less dense and molecules move farther apart, the warm air rises through convection. When itreaches the upper levels, the warmer air cools, contracts, becomes denser, and then sinks back to earth. It then gets heated by the ground one more time, and the repeated actions form convection currents.
Watch this music video below…recommended by a classmate!
HEAT TRANSFER METHODS: RADIATION, CONDUCTION and CONVECTION
In the darkest regions of deep space, the temperature is a chilly -450° Fahrenheit. Closer to our Sun, temperatures reach thousands of degrees Fahrenheit. What makes Earth’s climate so moderate? Separating Earth from the extreme and inhospitable climate of space is a 500-mile-thick cocoon of gases called the atmosphere.
All planets have an atmosphere, a layer of gases that surrounds them. The Sun’s atmosphere is made up of hydrogen, while Earth’s is made up primarily of nitrogen and oxygen. Carbon dioxide, ozone, and other gases are also present. These gases keep our planet warm and protect us from the direct effects of the Sun’s radiation. Without this regulation, Earth could not sustain life.
Today we will start to learn WHY the earth’s atmosphere is so important to life. We will also discuss the major gases in the atmosphere and learn why each of them is so important.
From here we will then do an online activity called AstroVenture!
And when you have finished the AstroVenture Assignment,
The past few days have seen us focusing on the characteristics of the Inner Rocky Planets and the Outer Gas Giant Planets. We saw that all the planets have certain characteristics, but that the two main groups differ in several key factors. The Venn Diagram compares and contrasts these two classes of planets.
Using this comparison, you will have the basics to start the Planet Creation project. The project outline can be found under the Project Resources links to the right. You will also find a copy of the TrackStar Packet and the link to the TrackStar website.
InterStellar Exo-Planet Creation Project
You are a brilliant scientist and engineer that works for the IAU (International Astronomical Union – the same people that declared that Pluto was no longer a planet). You have developed an incredible machine that can actually create a planet! You have been commissioned by the IAU to design two new planets, one Inner Terrestrial Planet, and one Outer Gaseous Planet.
Project is due Tuesday April 8
Sample of a Student Project using Minecraft, by Tim Lowney
We have begun our study of the planets in our Solar System. Earth is one of the eight planets in our solar system as defined by the International Astronomical Union. In your studies you will learn the current definition of the word planet, and why Pluto is no longer considered a planet, but now rather, a dwarf planet. Below is a basic outline of what we are studying. For this unit we will be focusing on the TrackStar web-based activities and the Planet Creation Project. Links to these sites are under PROJECTRESOURCES on the right aside of this web page.
Outline for The Solar System
Planets orbit the Sun at different distances.
Planets have different sizes and distances.
Distances – How far from the sun, and its effects on temperatures
Orbits – periods of revolution
The solar system formed from a swirling cloud of gas and dust.
This does not by any means spell the end of the Sun’s dance of death. Helium will become concentrated in the center of the giant red Sun and will begin to ‘melt’ – forming heavier elements by means of nuclear fusion. This will cause the Sun to contract again as it slightly collapses inward. Near the end of the red giant stage, the helium-fusion zone will also shift to the outer layers of the Sun and the Sun will inflate again.
At this point, the fusion of helium will cease, leaving the Sun without a source of energy. Once the outward force caused by radiation pressure is absent, the solar mass will collapse inward. During this collapse, the Sun’s surface will heat up again – so much so that it will emit a significant amount of ultraviolet radiation. This will heat the matter that was previously ejected into space and cause it to glow – a ‘planetary nebula’ will be formed.
At the nebula’s center, the Sun will remain as a glowing ‘white dwarf‘ star. The White Dwarf will be about the size of Earth, but its matter will be so densely packed together that a piece the size of a sugar cube will weigh a ton. Over the course of several more billions of years, the White Dwarf will slowly cool down – becoming a ‘black dwarf‘ – and then our Sun will finally have disappeared.
Tonight’s assignment is to explore the following flash application available at this link here. Our goal is to analyze the graph and how the hours of daylight change over the course of year at various latitudes on Earth.
Answer the following questions on separate paper or the answer sheet in your
Chapter 2 Notes packet (page 8 or 10) .
This is to be used as background
for your WORM activity.
1) Examine the daylight hours over the course of the year for the town of Bourne. Use your internet skills to to determine the latitude of Bourne and then adjust the bar to that degree latitude.
When is the longest day of the year?
What days does Bourne receive 12 hours of daylight?
What is the most amount of sunlight Bourne receives?
2) Work with the animation, think about what you are doing, and then answer the questions.
At what degree latitude do people begin to experience 24 hours of daylight or night time?
Why does this occur on our planet?
What happens to the amount of daylight at the North Pole and South Pole (90 degrees North and South)? Describe why this occurs.
Adjust the latitude to at least two other latitudes.
Make sure one is in the southern hemisphere.
After analyzing the graphs, write a conclusion stating how the hours of daylight change as someone travels North or South of the Equator. What is the relationship between the following vocabulary terms and concepts?.
Be sure you use the following vocabulary words in your conclusions: